1.1a Posture Profile WorksheetName(s) of asana in Sanskrit : Baranasana rCommon English Name(s): Lunge Pose/Runners Lunge poseLiteral translation/derivation: Barana = Monkey – Monkey poseAsana Analysis:Key joints/articulation/nature of movementSpine – extension, slight rotation for chest to face forward, pelvis levelFront leg – Si Joint nutation, hip flexion, knee flexion, ankle dorsiflexionBack leg. SI joint counter nutation, hip extension and adduction, knee extension, ankle plantar flexion.Upper Limbs (arms): Scapular abduction and upward rotation, shoulder abduction and external rotation, elbow extension, forearm supination.Key factors involved in creating the movement from the starting point (prone, supine, semi-supine, sitting, kneeling, standing). Factors include muscular contraction, both concentric and eccentric as appropriate, and gravity.Starting from uttanasana/table top or adho mukha svanasana:Step right leg forward ensuring that knee is over ankle and a 90 degree angle is taken. Ensure that you have tailbone down and long to engage mula bandha to protect lumber region. The back leg needs to be strong and lengthening back towards the back wall, remembering to hug the muscles to the bone for stability.Axial extension will help lengthen the upper body and help with creating a feeling of lightness. It is crucial that student finds their place of stability so that they are aware of the pose working for them strengthening and opening the hip flexors is the main aim of this pose. Gravity does a lot of the work with the lower body. If you raise the arms you create more of a challenge as your upper body is working against gravity. Muscular joint actionsSPINEConcentric contraction.To extend spine - spinal extensorsTo rotate chest forward: Internal oblique (front leg side), external oblique (back leg side). Eccentric contractionTo prevent hyperextension at lumber spine: Psoas minor, abdominal muscles. To support weight of head as neck extends (if looking up): Rectus capitis, longus capitis and colli, verticallis, scalenes.UPPER LIMBS Concentric ContractionTo abduct and upwardly rotate scapula: Serratus anteriorTo supinate forearm: SupinatorEccentric contractionTo stablise and abduct shoulder joint: Rotator cuff, biceps brachii (long head), middle deltoid.LOWER LIMBSFront leg – concentric contractionTo resist abduction at hip and widen knee.Gracilis, adductor longus and brevis.Front Leg – eccentric contractionTo allow hip and knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion without collapsing into gravity: Gleuteus maximus, hamstrings at hip joint, vastii, soleus, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the footTo level and centre pelvis over feet and to maintain balance side to side: Gluteus medius and minimus; piriformis, superior and inferior gemellus.Back leg –concentric contractionTo extend hip: Hamstrings at hip joint, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus.To extend knee: Articularis genu, vastiiTo dorsiflex ankle and tuck toes under: Tibialis anterior, toe extensors.Key factors that may cause limitations (joint shape, body proportion, tightness or weakness of key muscles e.g. tight hamstrings in uttanasana; weak quads in utkatasana)Tight psoas muscle and hip flexors Tight hamstringsWeak thoracic spine.Problems with balanceNeck issues.Heart problems, hypertension PreparationGive examples of specific preparation. Indicate areas the preparation is targeting from the factors identified above.Seated position with gentle breathing and visualisation to settle and ground before practice.Moving into ujayii breath.Majariasana (cat) Bitilasana (cow) to warm up the spine – flexing and extending. Gentle seated spinal twist (parivritta sukhasana) to work spine in all directionsFrom Tadasana - Lateral bends both sides to open sides – moving into slight backbend – Uttanasana to prepare hamstrings and lower leg muscle groups and flex spine.Sun salutations to warm and energise the body.Moving into lunges from either side.Areas for Caution Bricks or blocks on either side of the front foot.Hands on knees (in low lunge)Front toe pressing into wall (for added stability)Chair or wall for support for less mobile. Blanket under knees if tender/injured.Vulnerable areas: Knees/ lumbar /neckNeck LumberKneesHeart problems, hypertension:Points for observation, adjustment . Key teaching points to protect vulnerable areas.Neck (keep neck long using the key teaching points) – axial extension. Only look upwards if it enhances the pose.Keep Mula bandha engaged for stability and protect spine. Keep ankle under knee with knee at a 90 degree angle to bring centre of gravity into alignment and avoid unnecessary strain on ligaments. If back knee is down in modification place blanket or padding under knee for support. Avoid raising the arms, keep on front bent knee or on ground. See Areas for cautionStages leading to the posture, if appropriate, (using less challenging/modified versions to prepare for/ lead into the final posture): including teaching points to promote good structural alignment and core strength/stability as appropriate to the postureStart out kneeling on all fours?- Hands should be positioned directly under the shouldersKnees should be directly under the hipsStep forward with the right foot, placing it between the handsMake sure the knee is directly over the ankleCreating a ninety-degree angle between the floor and the calf/shinRight thigh parallel with the floorLift the left knee off the ground (or see low lunge variation below) – Remember to hug muscles Into bones. Press the left heel backward towards the opposite wall creating length.Tuck and lengthen the tailbone to switch o mula bandha.Feel the opposition created by pressing the left heel back and the right knee forwardRelax and lengthen the neck – axial extension.Could begin from uttanasana or adho mukha svanasana.With adho mukha svanasana lift right leg – curl bottom of leg towards standing buttock. Lift onto toes on standing leg and shift centre of gravity forwards placing the right leg between the hands. (help it move forwards with left hand if needed) Hold for 5 – 10 breaths. KEY Teaching points while in the postureExtend the thoracic spine by bring your head slightly back and up and chin in and down, making back of neck long. Move head forwards and relax neck as you exhale. Reach crown of the head towards the sky.Keep knees over ankles and a 90 degree angle in the front leg.Draw shoulder blades together and drawn down the back, creating openness in the front body.Tailbone long and down to engage mula bandha.Hug muscles into bones. Lengthen the back leg towards the wall behind you.Feel the stability in the lower body rooting into the earth and the lightness in the upper bodyBreath evenly using ujayii breath. Remember to listen to your body and make yoga work for you. If it feels too strong and you do not feel stable any more do what you need to to bring back the stability and lightness.e.g. drop knee, bring arms down.Bringing students out of the postureTo exit: Establish a strong connection with your feet and legs. Ensure that your core is strong. With an outbreath rock slightly back with more extension in front leg. Bring hands to either side of the feet and back foot to front foot hip width apart – bend into uttanasna and slowly roll up to TadasanaVariations/ways of developing the postureVariationsFace a wall. The big toe of the foot that is in front should be pressed against the wall and the arms can be stretched upwards with the fingers touching the wall as well.Two blocks either side of the hands.Hands on thighs.Back leg lengthening and resting on the floor. T o developLift arms above head, palms facing each other and take a backbend. Counterposes.Balasana (child pose)Badda konasana Adho mukha svanasanaKey benefits and effects: (If esoteric, refer to source ancient texts)Opens the hips and chestImportant stretch for proper alignment of the pelvisStretches the hip flexor muscles deep in the pelvisStretches the groin and legs (front of the thighs)Lengthens the spineIncreases balance and focusStrengthens the quads Increases stamina, focus and balance.References in source ancient texts (if any)Sources of information from modern teachers/bibliographyYoga Anatomy, Leslie Kaminoff and Amy Matthews, Human Kinetics, (2012) p96-99The Yoga Bible, Christine Brown, Godsfield Press (2003), p60-61Teaching Yoga – Essential foundations and techniques, Mark Stephens, North Atlantic Books, 2010, p162Yoga Journal (online) Sequencing, Designing Transformative Yoga Class, Mark Stephens, North Atlantic Books (2012), p 368 - 369Student teacher’s comments on what has been learned from this taskStudent teacher’s signature DateTutor’s comments:Tutor’s signature DateNotes for guidance: This template should be expanded in size to include detail as required. Diagrams may be used for explanation. All areas of the profile must be covered as relevant to the specific posture. Some aspects will be more applicable than others, depending on the posture. Tutors may ask for other information to be included. Tutors may adjust the profile proforma at their discretion as long as all criteria are met. ................
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