# Six Sigma Basics - MIT OpenCourseWare

Six Sigma Basics

Learning Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:

? Recognize that Six Sigma is a valuable

approach for improving process quality

? Interpret a basic Statistical Process Control

chart

? Distinguish between process and specified

control limits

? Describe a capable process

Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 2 ? 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

What is Six Sigma?

? A Strategy to improve process quality by

identifying and eliminating defects and minimizing variation in process outputs

? A data driven approach based on Measurement

of the process variation using Statistical Process Control

? A structured Implementation approach based

on a DMAIC cycle and certified experts

The goal of Six Sigma is to reduce process variation

Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 3 ? 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Standard Normal Distribution Curve

Sigma () = one standard deviation

1

34.1%

0.1%

13.6% 2.1%

2 3

Some notable qualities of the normal distribution:

? The mean is also its mode and median.

? 68.27% of the area (green) is within one standard deviation of the mean.

? 95.45% of the area (green & yellow) is within two standard deviations.

? 99.73% of the area (green & yellow & red) is within three standard deviations

Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 4 ? 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Defects

? "Defect" is defined as any process output that

does not meet the customers specifications.

? Improving quality means reducing the defects

per million opportunities (DPMO). There are two attributes to this metric that can be controlled:

? Opportunities ? reducing the number of steps,

handoffs and other "opportunities" will help improve quality

? Defects ? reducing the number of defects for

each process step through continuous process improvement will help improve quality

Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 5 ? 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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