Introduction to Health

Nutrition Unit

Essentials of Nutrition

1. ____________: Natural drive to eat

2. ____________: Desire to eat

3. ____________: Substances needed by the body to grow, repair, and supply energy

Essential Nutrients:

1. ____________ 2. _____________ 3. Minerals 4. Carbohydrates 5.__________ 6. ________

What effects appetite?

1. Food and emotions: depression, ____________, rewards, boredom

2. Food and Environment:

• ____________ and friends

• ____________

• Convenience and ____________

• _________________


❖ Carbohydrates, ____________ and fats

❖ Eat in relatively _______________ amounts

❖ They provide our bodies with ________________

❖ Also are the ________________ blocks for growth and maintenance of a healthy body.


❖ ________________ and _______________

❖ Only needed in __________ amounts, but are _______________ to keep us healthy.

❖ Are ____________ to development, disease prevention, and well being.

Micronutrients are not ___________ in the body and must be ______________ from the _______________

Carbohydrates: The main job of carbohydrates is that they _____________ you ______________.

The only source of _______________ for the _____________ and ______________ blood cells.

Fiber aids in _____________ and waste _____________________.

Simple Carbohydrates:

Can be found in refined (processed) sugars, especially ____________ sugars. Ex. Sugar in sweets

Can also be found in nutritious foods as well. Ex. Milk and certain ____________.

* Simple Carbohydrates are the ____________ option of the two as they contain much more sugar.

Complex Carbohydrates:_________________________________________

* They include ____________ such as wheat, which are used to make foods such as bread, pasta

and rice.

Fats: the most _______________ source of ____________ available to the _________________.

(Recommended no more than __________ of caloric intake)

Function: necessary for _________ development, provide _________ and support ________, cushions ________ organs, provides body ________________.

Saturated fats:______ These have a ___________ effect on our cholesterol. Should be limited in diet.

Found in fatty meats, dairy products, sweets, biscuits and cakes.

Unsaturated fats:______________

• These are generally liquid at room temperature.

• They can reduce the risk of ____________ Disease.

• Can be found in cooking ____________.

Trans fats: The ____________ type of fat for the body.

Adds hydrogen to vegetable oil, which causes the oil to become solid at room temperature.

• Increases one's risk of ____________ Disease.

• Less likely to spoil

Protein: has the job of ________, maintenance and ________, this is why it is so important for an athlete to eat something with a source of protein in once they have finished competing, as it will help their body to ____________ if they had sustained any _____________.

• Not stored in the ____________ anywhere.

• Found in ________ foods, such as _____________, fish and ______________.

• A lower amount of protein found in ______________, ________________ and soy products.

Water: an essential nutrient involved in _______________ function of the________________

Daily recommended intake: ________ oz of _____________ glasses a day.

Water makes up around two thirds of the ____________ body

• Vital to our ____________.

• It flushes out _________________ and transports __________________ around the body

• It helps for ___________to move easily, assists with _________, and regulating body temperature.

Vitamins: Keep our skin, hair, eyes, teeth, bones, blood cells and nerves all in good condition.

Vitamin A: Essential for normal ____________. Carrots and mangoes.

Vitamin D: It is good for absorbing ____________, which is required for normal growth of

teeth and bones. The sun, sardines, salmon and milk

Vitamin E: Protects your cells from being ____________. Nuts, vegetable oil & whole grains.

Vitamin K: building_________ bones, prevent _____________ _______________

Vitamin C: It is good for the ____________ system. Found in ____________ fruits and_____________ fruits.

Minerals: : ________________ found in rocks and soil.

• ______________ heals ____________

• ______________ develops strong teeth and ____________

• _____________helps body fight infection and helps brain and nervous system function.

My Plate Facts:


Nutrient-Dense foods: is high in _____________ but relatively low in ______________. They contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, and healthy ___________________.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Foods to Reduce 1. 2. 3.

Match each of the following foods with which nutrient (Fats, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, or Water) they are rich with:


Wheat Bread- _______________

Calcium- _______________

A, D, E, K- _______________

Drinking Water-_______________

Pork chop-_______________


Soups- _______________

Tuna- _______________

Dried Beans-_______________


Whole Milk-_______________

Corn oil-_______________


Potassium- _______________

Celery- _______________

Ice Cream-_______________


Pasta- _______________

Eggs- _______________

Rice- _______________

Fruits- _______________

Vegetable Oil-_______________

Bacon _____________________

Ranch dressing-_______________

What does a balanced diet contain? A balanced diet contains a _______________of all of the different types of food groups. As well as a mixture of the ___________ essential _____________in order to maintain a healthy and balanced diet.

|Fruit | |

|Protein | |

|Grains | |

|Dairy | |

|Fats/oils | |

|Vegetables | |

The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity.

• If you're doing moderate-intensity activity you ___________talk, but not sing, during the activity.

• If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will __________ be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath.

• We all need at least ____________ minutes of exercise a day!

How active are you?____________ What is your recommended daily calorie amount?___________

MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image—a place setting for a meal. Before you eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl. Use the key to fill in the suggested amounts of each food group FOR YOUR GENDER AND AGE. Then List a food for each meal.

Portion Size

3 oz of meat____________ 1 oz of cheese_______________ 2 Tbs. Peanut butter_________

Medium Potato:__________ 1 Cup Pasta:________________ Average Bagel:_____________

Portion Control: Seeing the healthy way to eat (movie-Matching)

1. Tip of thumb = a. portion size of meat or fish

2. A half-fist = b. 1 cup

3. Palm of a hand (no fingers) c. portion size for margarine, butter

4. Thumb = d. ½ cup

5. A fist = e. portion size for cheese, peanut butter

6. TRUE or FALSE: Approximately one third of American adults are overweight.

7. TRUE or FALSE: Obesity is now the second leading preventable cause of death in the U.S.

8. TRUE or FALSE: Obese people have a higher risk for cancer and many other serious illnesses.

9. TRUE or FALSE: Only grownups need to worry about obesity.

10. TRUE or FALSE: Americans ate less before food companies started super-sizing portions in the 1980s.

11. TRUE or FALSE: Restaurants are using bigger plates and cups than they used to.

12. TRUE or FALSE: A meal of a burger, fries and a drink can contain 1,100 more calories today than it did 50 years ago.

13. TRUE or FALSE: It takes about five minutes for the brain to tell the stomach that it is full.

14. TRUE or FALSE: The size of a person’s palm is the correct portion of cheese or peanut butter.

15. TRUE or FALSE: One way to control portions is to divide your plate into one third meat, one third fruit and one third dessert.

Sugar- Since sugar is _______ one of the 6 essential nutrients our body does not need it to survive.

• There is __________ recommended daily intake of sugar.

• The American Heart Association recommends that_________ consume no more than ______ teaspoons and _________ no more than _________ teaspoons.


1. Sugar can ________your heart.

2. Sugar specifically promotes___________ fat.

3. Sugar is the true “____________”.

4. Sugar may be linked to ________ production and may effect cancer _____________.

5. Your sugar "____________" may be genetic.

6. Sugar and alcohol have similar __________ liver effects on the ________.

7. Sugar may __________ your _________ power.

8. Sugar ____________ in many everyday "__________________" foods.

9. An ____________ of sugar (specifically in beverages) may ______________ your life.

10. Sugar is making us _______________.

Processed Versus Unprocessed Foods

A whole food is:

• a food that has _____________________ added to it or ___________________ from it

• a food in the form which __________ intended it to be

A processed food is:

• __________ the food from the form it is found in _________


|Whole Food |Processed Food |

| | |

| | |

| | |

How do you know your foods are whole?

1. 2. 3.

Size up your serving:General Guide to Calories:

What is a Calorie? ___________________________

40 Calories:_______________

100 Calories:______________

400 Calories:______________

Food Labels

What are the three steps in judging if a food is right for you?

1. ________________________________

2. ________________________________

3. ___________________________

What is %DV________________________________

• % Daily Value helps you to determine if a serving of food is __________ or ____________ in a nutrient.

Quick Guide to % DV

• _________ is low

• 20% DV or more is____________

High Fiber ________ or more per serving. A "good source" of fiber should have _________% in the DV or contain _________ g per serving

Food Label

1. Write the name of your food product here:_______________________________________

2. Write the Serving Size of your product: _________________________________________

3. How many Servings Per Container?___________________________________________

-If there is more than one serving per container, and you ate THE WHOLE CONTAINER, how

many calories would you really be eating? (Calories x how many servings = ) ______________.

-If there is more than one serving and you ate the whole container, how many Total Fat grams would you really be eating? (Total Fat grams x how many servings = ) ______________.

Is your product’s serving size realistic for you to eat? YES_____ or NO______

Have they been deceptive by listing a small serving size? YES____ or NO_____

4. What is the Total Fat listing for 1 serving of your food?__________________

The two fats that are bad for you are: SATURATED FAT + TRANS FAT.

If your product has Saturated Fat, how many grams are in one serving?______

If your product lists the ingredients, do you see “hydrogenated,” or “partially hydrogenated” ? YES_______ (If yes, THAT’S TRANS FAT!) NO_______

5. What are the Sugars grams listed for 1 serving of your food?__________________

6. FIGURE FOR FAT: Calories from Fat ÷ total calories =________________ % Total Fat

Is your product’s total fat under 35%? YES_______ or NO_______


Sugar grams ÷ total grams (the weight of product) =________________

Food Label Scavenger Hunt:


1. Which one has less calories? Costco pizza, or a Costco hot dog for lunch.

Costco pizza calories: ___________________

Costco hotdog calories: _________________

Which is less? _________________________________________

2. People with high blood pressure should watch their sodium. Compare the sodium in:

DQ Chicken Strip Basket:___________ Kraft Macaroni and Cheese:_______________

Which one is less? ___________________________

3. Which has less total fat?

Chicken McGrill: ___________________

Crispy Chicken: ___________________

Which is less? ___________________________________

4. I want salad dressing on my salad at McDonalds. Which one has the least amount of calories?

1) Creamy Caesar: Calories: ________________

2) Ranch: Calories: ________________________

Which is less? _________________________________________

5. Which of all the “Main Meals” has the highest number of calories?:________________________


6. Let’s compare Coke and Mt. Dew:

Coke: Calories:____________ Carbohydrates? _____________ Sodium?_______________

Mt. Dew: Calories:____________ Carbohydrates? _____________ Sodium?________________

Circle the one with more calories.

7. The ingredient to worry about in beverages is SUGAR! How many teaspoons of sugar are actually in the Chocolate Milkshake? (Hint: Put sugar grams into your calculator and divide by 4)

sugar grams ______________divided by 4 =_______________teaspoons


8. If I eat the whole jumbo muffin, I have to multiply the calories by 3. __________x___3____=____________

Is that more or less calories than the oatmeal? Circle one: more or less

9. Let’s compare bacon and sausage.

Bacon serving size? _____________

Sausage serving size? ___________

Are the serving sizes similar? yes or no.


10. How many calories are in Ben & Jerry’s Frozen Yogurt: _____________________

11. Which one has the least amount of calories?

1) Ben & Jerry’s Frozen Yogurt calories: ____________________

2) Chocolate Fudge ice-cream calories: ___________________

Which is less? _________________________________________

12. How many calories in 1 Twizzlers Cherry? ________________

13. If I eat 20 Twizzlers Cherry I need to figure 20 x _____________ calories = ___________________

14. I’m deciding between a Snickers and 3 Oreo cookies.

Which one has less calories?____________________________

15. Which of all the “Desserts” has the highest number of calories?____________________________


16. A banana is only a few calories less than 12 potato chips, but why else is it a healthier choice than Ruffles Potato Chips? It is a serving from this food group: ____________________________.

17. Which has less Saturated Fat (the bad kind!) Almonds or Microwave Popcorn:___________________________

18. Do you feel you could now look at food labels to help you choose healthier foods? Circle: Yes or N

Nutrition Unit


1. Carbohydrates

2. Proteins

3. Hunger

4. Appetite

5. Nutrients

6. Calories


1.  What is a serving size?

2.  What is percent daily value?

3.  What does a food label tell the user?

4.  What are the 6 essential nutrients?

5.  What is the job of carbohydrates?

6.  What is the job of proteins?

7.  What is the worst type of fat for the body?

8.  What is the daily recommended intake of water?

9.  Which vitamin type is essential for normal vision?

10.  What 5 food groups make up MyPlate?

11.  Which mineral fights infection?

12.   Provide 2 examples of processed and whole foods?

13.   What food portion size is equivalent to a hockey puck?

14.   What food portion size is equivalent to a deck of cards?

15.  How do you know a food is whole?

16. How many calories per serving make it…?  Low? Moderate?   High?

17.%DV:    LOW:  HIGH:

18. What nutrients do you want to limit?

19. What nutrients do you want to get enough of?


7. Water

8. Vitamins

9. Minerals

10. Micronutrients

11. Macronutrient

12. Processed foods

13. Whole foods


14. Nutrient-Dense foods

15. Calorie

16. A half-fist =

17. A fist=

18. Palm of a hand (no fingers)=

19. Thumb =

20. Tip of thumb=


1. Milk- Healthier to switch to ________ or low-fat (1%) milk.

2. Cheese- Cheese is a fabulous source of _________, but can also be high in saturated fat.

3. Bread- Most Americans consume enough grains, but few are _________ grains. At least ________ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains!

4. Apple- Apples contain no ______, sodium or cholesterol and are a ________ source of fiber.

You should get 1.5-2 cups of fruit per day! That’s ________ fist sizes!

5. Banana- Bananas have a natural _________ effect in the body, so if you suffer from _________, try eating a banana for soothing relief.

6. Grapes- Grapes are a rich ___________ of micronutrient minerals like copper, iron and manganese

7. Carrots- _________ can provide benefits to our skin, teeth, nails, hair and even help to prevent signs of aging!

8. Potato- eating the _______of potatoes helps boost your fiber/potassium intake!

9. Broccoli- 2-3 cups of vegetables are recommended each ________, depending on how many calories you need. But aim for __________ veggies!

10. Turkey- While __________ is the most popular meat in America, its protein content is ________compared to poultry.

11. Fish- Protein is a nutrient that the body needs to grow and maintain itself. Next to ______, protein is the ________ plentiful substance in our bodies.

12. Chicken- About ¼ of your plate should be protein. The average American eats over _________pounds of chicken each year.


3 ounce meat = a deck of cards

1 oz. of cheese = a domino














Focus on ___________: make half of your plate fruits and half of your plate veggies

Vary your ____________: include a large variety of colors

Make half of your ___________ whole: brown rice, whole wheat

Go lean with ____________: eggs, soy, nuts, seeds

____________ rich foods: milk, cheese, and yogurt

Eat more nutrient ___________ foods





Exercise: Teens

should get __________ added up per day





1 ounce of bread =

1 slice

1 cup cereal

½ cup rice


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